The Birth Of Civilization Tour From Main Goodess To Mevlana
Witnessing important social changes and developments such as the beginning of agriculture and hunting along with the transition to settled social life, which is an important stage in the development of humanity, the Çatalhöyük Neolithic City takes place on an area of 14 hectares in the South Anatolian Plateau. The Eastern tumulus, which is the longer of two tumulusses of Çatalhöyük Neolitic Site, consists of 18 Neolithic settlement strata dating from 7,400-6,200 BC. In these strata, there are wall paintings, reliefs, sculptures and other artistic elements that symbolize social organization and the transition to permanent settlement. The Western tumulus shows cultural characteristic of Chalcolithic period dated between 6,200 - 5,200 BC. With these characteristics, Çatalhöyük is an important proof of the transition from the villages that existed in the same geography for more than 2000 years to urban life. The interconnected houses in Çatalhöyük with no streets which are entered from the roofs demonstrate a unique characteristic. Although other Neolithic sites have been found in the Middle East and Anatolia, the Çatalhöyük Neolithic City has an extraordinary universal value with the unique composition of the size of the remains, the density of the living society, strong artistic and cultural traditions and continuity over time.
2. KILISTRA ANCIENT CITY:
Kilistra, which witnessed of intense settlement during the Hellenistic and Roman periods and rapidly grew during the Early Christian period (VI.-XIII. century), gained an architectural texture similar to Cappadocia. The ancient city of Kilistra is located on the historical Royal Road (Via Sebaste). Strategically important Lystra is one of the five centers made military colony in the southern ends by the Roman Empire Emperor Augustus. Touring Anatolia in the same period (49-56 AD), the majority of the people of Lystra joined the new religion that Saint Paulus and Barnabas had imposed. The beautiful Thecla, who listened to him in the window of the house opposite the synagogue, where the messenger Paulus made his first sermon in Konya on his first visit with Barnabas, was blessed for protecting her virginity, devoting herself to the sacred path, tortured by the Romans for this cause, sentenced to death, and reached the seat of Azize (Saint). Timoteos, the child of the Jewish family who saved his life in Lystra (Hatunsaray) as well as Azîze Theakla, became one of Paulus' most distinguished assistants. For Timoteus, who was also chosen as the Bishop of Ephesus, Paulus addresses him as "my apprentice" in the letters
he sent. Timotheos, who was sent officers to Thessaloniki, Macedonia and Corinth and called "my son of faith", "my dear son", "our brother", was mentioned as well as his exemplary personality and practical solutions he found in solving problems. Kilistra stands out as an important place in the life of St. Paulus and with valuable examples such as churches, chapels, monasteries, watchtowers, shelters, ancient roads, neighborhoods and ceramic workshops.
3. SILLE ST. HELENA CHURCH
The oldest settlement in Sille, 8 km northwest of Konya, is Sızma Tumulus which is located in the north. In the researches made here, remains of the 8-7 th century BC Phrygian civilization were found. It is understood from the stone works belonging to the ancient architecture in the city that Sille, which was named Sylata or Sylla in the ancient period, was inhabited in the Roman period. Probably, the city was a stopping point near Konya on the King's road from Ephesus to East. In the same century, Saint Paul should have been in Sille during his passing through Konya. In the 4 th century AD, Ephesus lost its importance and Istanbul, the capital of Byzantium, gained importance. Located on the road from Istanbul to Jerusalem, Konya maintained its importance during this period and became the stopover point for pilgrims going to Jerusalem. The inscription of The Church of St. Helena states that the building was
built by Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great on this date. As it is known, the first Christian aristocrat, Helena, went to Jerusalem in her lifetime to find the holy cross where the Prophet Jesus was hanged and built many churches on the roads she passed. The Church of St. Helena shows that Sille is indeed on this road. The settlement, whose name is not mentioned in the Byzantine period historical sources, it has been exposed to Arab raids between 7-10 th centuries AD Like all other cities. Gevale Castle, which was an important strategic point, made the region an open target in this period and therefore the region was frequently invaded. With the Arab invasions ending in Anatolia, the city became an important religious center. The rock churches in the region and especially Ak (White) Monastery clearly show this importance. The importance of Sille increased after the Seljuks captured Konya and made it the capital city after 1071. As a result of the Turkish domination in Konya, it is thought that some of the non-Muslims in the city settled outside the city. Probably the most immigration in this period was to Sille, which is very close to Konya. In 1226, Sultan Alaeddin Keykubat I brought a group of Christian Pecheneg Turks to Konya on his return to Armenia and settled in Sille. In 1995, the southern slopes of churches, monasteries and cemeteries were declared as the first degree archaeological site, and the main settlement area as urban site by the Konya Cultural and Natural Heritage Preservation Board. Today, Sille is an important cultural and tourism center of Konya.
4. SILLE STONE BRIDGE
Sille Creek, which divides the city center into two in the middle, has required the construction of many bridges. The most important bridge in the center of Sille, which is observed to be quite crowded in the photographs of the end of the 19 th century, is Mısırlıoglu Street (Stone) Bridge. Dating back to the 19thy century, the bridge is distinguished from other bridges with its rich stonework. Other bridges, which are seen to be made of wood from old photographs, have been renovated today with arched bridges made of Sille stone.
5. SILLE AQUEDUCT BRIDGE (DEVIL BRIDGE):
In Sille, which has a crowded population, although there is a stream passing through the center of the settlement, water has also been brought from distant regions. The stories of bringing water from far away are still told in Sille. The waterway to the west of the city and the aqueduct, also known as the Devil's Bridge on Mormi Street, are some of the waterways that can survive today. Especially 10-meter high Sille Aqueduct bridge is quite monumental with its graceful pointed arch. Nowadays, although the Municipality brought water to the region, many people from outside come to Sille forthese delicious spring waters.
6. TEPE (HILL) CHAPEL:
The chapel is located on a hill in the southwestern part of Sille. The work, which is called "Small Church" among the people, is also known as the "Milk Church" due to the fact that mothers whose milk is depleted early visit this place. The chapel, built with rubble stones, has a single nave and is covered with vaults. Around the chapel are Muslim and non-Muslim cemeteries.
7. SILLE ARSENAL:
It is the arsenal at the entrance to the east of Sille. The work, dated to the 19 th century, consists of a space placed in a high wall. Two military buildings located next to the arsenal building were demolished in 1984.
8. SILLE ÇAY (CREEK) MOSQUE:
The work was built as a bazaar mosque on the bank of Sille Creek, which was once a crowded market place. It became a neighborhood mosque after the bazaar was emptied and houses were built instead. The work, dated to the 19 th century, has three naves. In the work with wooden columns, the columns sit on profiled pillows. The minaret is to the east of the mosque in the work of art, which has rich woodwork in the mihrab, minbar and pulpit.